If given the chance to live anywhere, most people would choose somewhere that feels healthy. Right? Somewhere with fresh, clean air, perfectly temperate weather, lots of wide, clearly marked space to walk, run, bike, and roller skate, and fresh, nourishing food in abundance. Throw in a community garden that has, like, burbling brook in the middle and affordable home prices and you’re pretty much set.
Achieving this health-filled utopia is… complicated, and doubly so when you live in a city. But health isn’t impossible when you live in a big city—in fact, some places facilitate it. We evaluated dozens across the United States to find the 25 places that make it easiest to be healthy. Here’s how the healthiest cities in the U.S. stack up.
How Did We Pick the Healthiest Cities in the United States?
We started with a list of 75 cities—the most populated in every state, plus several others that are well known, made the cut for other healthy city roundups in other publications, or are known in some way as a health and wellness spot. Then, we scored each city across the different factors that make up our wellness framework, or what we consider the building blocks of health: movement, nutrition, rest, and physical and mental care.
Here’s a deeper look at each component.
Moving your body is one of the most meaningful ways CDC “Benefits of Physical Activity” View Source to stay well, and movement is a lot easier if you aren’t bound to a car to get where you need to go. We took a look at each city’s Walk Score and Bike Score to see if it’s the kind of place where residents can walk or bike most places, or if it’s necessary to take a drive for every errand. We also considered accessibility by looking into whether each city makes it possible for people with disabilities to get around (such as complying with ADA’s sidewalk width and texture rules).
Additionally, we looked at the range of fitness gyms and studios in each city, and if it appealed to a wide range of people. (Some people do best with a community center gym; others need a Barry’s.) Cities got bonus points for regularly offering free workout classes or resources.
Access to fresh, nutritious food is a must for any healthy city. We scanned the grocery store offerings in each city to ensure it has a sufficient number compared to the city’s population. Part of this involved checking for national healthy food standbys, like Whole Foods and Trader Joe’s, as well as international grocery stores and indie health food spots.
Simply having healthy options isn’t enough, though. We also checked whether each city provides clear, actionable information about how to access SNAP, EBT, WIC, or other food assistance programs on its website.
Finally, we looked into farmers markets—the best place to get fresh, local produce and some good-for-the-soul buttery, sugary treats—and how many you can expect to find in each city, when they’re open, and what kind of food and services residents can expect to find. The best farmers markets make it easy to use food assistance, and some even provide incentives like doubling its value if it’s used to buy healthy food. Cities with farmers markets that provide affordable options for everyone got extra points, and we highlight them where possible.
Sleeping and relaxing is an oft-overlooked component of health—and not always that easy in a city. To evaluate rest, we checked to see if a city is known to have bad noise pollution or noise late at night and at each city’s median rent for a one-bedroom apartment. (It’s easier to sleep soundly in a place you can call your own.)
We also looked at each city’s access to parks, using Parkscore and the city’s reporting about its public lands. Being in a green space in the midst of an urban area Nature “Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment” View Source can help reduce stress and increase “perceived pleasantness.” If you want to relax amidst the hustle and bustle of city life, being able to dip into some kind of park is pretty essential.
Physical and Mental Care
Access to great physicians, mental health professionals, and hospitals is a must for—well, pretty much everyone. We looked at how many hospitals are in (or close to) each city, how mortality rates compare to other hospitals nationwide, and whether the city is a hub for or nearby any notable, top-ranked healthcare systems. We looked into other factors that can affect mental and physical health, such as air quality and obesity, smoking, vaccination rates, and excessive drinking rates.
Another factor we considered is the percentage of the city’s population with health insurance. (Lacking insurance negatively affects health OASH “Access to Health Services” View Source , as uninsured adults are less likely to seek out medical care.) We also checked if cities have free clinics that provide preventative and mental health services to people who do not have health insurance.
A note on health and cities:
In some ways, this list indicates what a lot of us already know: Living in a healthy place is a privilege. Cities with great health resources tend to be expensive, with a high cost of living and high median income to match.
This is relevant because people with high incomes are less likely to experience obesity PLOS Medicine “The overweight and obesity transition from the wealthy to the poor in low- and middle-income countries: A survey of household data from 103 countries” View Source , bear the burden of commercial tobacco CDC “People with Low Socioeconomic Status Experience a Health Burden from Commercial Tobacco” View Source , be uninsured International Journal for Equity in Health “The convergence of racial and income disparities in health insurance coverage in the United States” View Source , and experience disease and premature death Urban Institute “How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?” View Source . There’s also a link between wealth inequality and race. On the whole, Black and Latino families earn approximately half as much Federal Reserve “Wealth Inequality and the Racial Wealth Gap” View Source as White families and have about 15% to 20% as much net wealth. Because of this, cities with high minority populations—particularly Black communities—tend to be excluded from lists like this.
One can quibble about the necessity of, say, an Equinox in every community, but everyone deserves clean air, potable drinking water, access to fresh fruit and vegetables, decent medical facilities, and space to move around. That this is limited to places where a lot of the people who live there can afford an Equinox membership is a problem—and explains why, for much of the country, health can be an uphill battle.
It’s also worth noting that a city being on this list doesn’t mean that everyone who lives there is healthy, nor does it mean that someone can’t be healthy somewhere else. Consider this a ranking of resources and statistics—not a personal judgment.
The Healthiest Cities in the United States
1. Cambridge, Massachusetts
Our take: Come for the college, stay for the steps
For a healthy snack, try: Life Alive Organic Cafe
For a workout, try: VIM Fitness
No need to worry about closing all your Apple Watch rings if you live in Cambridge, Massachusetts. With a bikeability score of 96 and walkability score of 90—which is actually a smidge higher than fabled “I’m walkin’ here” capital New York City—residents can get almost anywhere on foot or two wheels. Beyond walking and cycling, Cambridge offers lots of opportunities for people to move, with dozens of athletic fields, sports leagues for kids and adults, a fully accessible sports center, and a golf course and community pool. The city’s public health department makes it easy to find information about vaccines, from COVID-19 to the flu, and provides free clinics for everyone interested in getting vaccinated. It also provides mini-grants to local businesses to create activities that promote healthy eating and active living, like a city bike give-back program and community garden projects.
Food-wise, residents can shop at plenty of farmers markets that sell local and seasonal produce, meat, seafood, and snacks, including one that’s open year-round. (Yes, even in those Northeast winters. Just be sure to bundle up and buy a hot drink if you go.) The farmers markets are there for everyone, too. All accept SNAP/EBT as payment and allow you to double their value when you buy healthy items.
2. Berkeley, California
Our take: Humanity’s pick for the second Garden of Eden
For a healthy snack, try: Garden Variety
For a workout, try: Bay Strength
Does health, to you, mean walking around all year with just a light jacket? First of all, that’s valid, and second of all, Berkeley, California might just be your ideal city. The Bay Area city’s climate is dreamily moderate, with temperatures that rarely fall below 35F or rise above 86F. That’s perfect for outdoor walking, running, hiking, or biking weather. (The easy access to walking and biking trails helps, too.) Then, there’s the fact that the city is not only known far and wide as a crunchy-granola mecca—it actually lives up to the hype. Residents can also go to not one but three massive year-round farmers markets exploding with local and organic produce, as well as with artisanal cheeses, breads, and more.
Another area in which Berkeley shines is public health. It’s easy to find clear, up-to-date information about COVID-19 rates and vaccinations on the city’s website. The city has a great vaccination rate, too—84% of Berkeley residents are fully vaccinated with at least one booster.
3. Burlington, Vermont
Our take: Most impressive commitment to outdoor fitness
For a healthy snack, try: Tomgirl
For a workout, try: Ethos Athletics
You can skip the gym and still get in a good workout if you live in Burlington, Vermont. Hike, bike, or jog the more than 30 miles of trails citywide, including the Burlington Greenway, which runs along scenic Lake Champlain. The trail also features outdoor fitness stations to facilitate pull-ups, core exercises, and more. If that’s not enough, you can visit the “Fitlot” outdoor gym, which has equipment that’s free for the public to use. Burlington’s bullishness for outdoor workouts may be because of its legendary air quality. It’s one of the top cities for clean air, according to the American Lung Association, thanks to its low rates of ozone and particle pollution.
Most Burlington residents have health insurance, and for those who don’t—just 3.7% of people in the city—the Burlington chapter of the Vermont Free Clinic provides medical and dental care free of charge. The whole state of Vermont also has the second-highest COVID-19 vaccination rates in the country, so Burlington is a good place to be if you want to be surrounded by people who have (likely) gotten the jab.
4. Arlington, Virginia
Our take: Easiest place to accidentally stumble into a workout
For a healthy snack, try: South Block
For a workout, try: Brazen Fitness
Arlington, Virginia earned the title of fittest city in the U.S. from the American College of Sports Medicine this year. It’s not hard to see why. It could be the Washington and Old Dominion trail, a bike (and running and walking) path that starts in Arlington and spans 45 miles south along an old train route. Perhaps it’s the nearby day hikes that boast breathtaking views like Great Falls, the Billy Goat Trail, and Theodore Roosevelt Island. It could also be that there are a lot of gyms and boutique fitness studios in the area, ranging from Barry’s to Corepower to Orangetheory to a plethora of local spots. All told, it’s hard not to find a way to stay fit in Arlington.
5. Boston, Massachusetts
Our take: Most likely to make post-marathon Dunkies runs their personality
For healthy food, try: Cocobeet
For a workout, try: Lynx Fitness Club
Boston certainly isn’t lacking in the health or fitness department. The city is famous for its world-class hospitals and healthcare systems, two of which—Boston Mass General and Brigham & Women’s—rank in the top 20 in the nation by U.S. News and World Report. To get your heart rate up, residents can participate in the many free fitness classes offered in city parks across Boston from HIIT to yoga to Zumba. (Or, if you’re up for it, the famed Boston Marathon.) And, yes, there are 23 farmers markets. Most are seasonal, but almost all accept WIC, senior coupons, and SNAP/EBT.
6. Boulder, Colorado
Our take: Best collective lung capacity
For a healthy snack, try: Thrive
For a workout, try: Kondition Fitness
Ever wondered why so many professional and Olympic athletes head to Boulder, Colorado to train? It’s the city’s elevation. Of course, you don’t have to be an athlete to take advantage of the fact that the city’s 5,430 feet above sea level. The altitude can improve lung capacity Journal of Applied Physiology “High-altitude exposure of three weeks duration increases lung diffusing capacity in humans” View Source —once you take some time to adjust, of course—and help your muscles perform better and stronger. It’s also one of the more bike-friendly cities in the country, so you can get some movement in even if you’re just getting around, not working out.
Given its mountainous location, the city has no shortage of outdoor activities, from hiking and biking to kayaking and paddle boarding to rock climbing and snowshoeing. You’ll also have ample opportunities to give your feet some R&R after a long day of activities. Boulder is the birthplace of Crocs, one of our favorite recovery sandal brands.
7. San Francisco, California
Our take: Most conditioned glutes per capita
For a healthy snack, try: Healthyish Republic
For a workout, try: Yu Balance
Who needs leg day when you live in the city of hilly terrain? Not only is San Francisco home to a dizzying number of inclines to trek, it was dubbed one of the top five most walkable cities in the U.S. in 2020. It’s also bike-friendly (well, once you get enough momentum going to get up those hills) and has good enough public transportation that you can get almost anywhere you need to go sans car. One thing San Fran ain’t, however, is cheap. Housing prices in the city are famously exorbitant, which affects the quality of life of many people who live there. That said, affordable healthcare is possible, including several prevention-focused free clinics to make medical treatment accessible to everyone.
8. Honolulu, Hawai’i
Our take: Easiest place to develop a whole new fruit palate
For a healthy snack, try: Peace Cafe
For a workout, try: Body Balance
When you think of Hawai’i, you likely think of pristine beaches practically begging for long walks, afternoon surf sessions, beach volleyball, or sunrise yoga. And that’s all in high supply on the islands! But the Hawai’i—specifically Honolulu, on the island of O‘ahu—is also a great place to find fresh fruit, whether you’re in the mood for something familiar, like pineapple or papaya, or something regional that can only be found in the Pacific, like breadfruit or apple bananas. If you challenge yourself to try a new fruit every day, you won’t lack for vitamins and antioxidants. Honolulu also boasts some of the cleanest air you’ll find in any metropolitan area.
9. Los Angeles, California
Our Take: Most likely to linger in the alternative milk aisle
For a healthy snack, try: Green Temple
For a workout, try: Everybody
If you’re someone who likes to be on the cusp of all things trendy—especially when it comes to your health and fitness—you’ll love Los Angeles, which many think of as the wellness mecca of the United States. Whether it’s a smoothie at luxury organic grocery store Erewhon or a workout outfit from LA-based brand Set Active, all the latest, greatest, and hippest can be found in L.A. The downside: L.A. is famously and aggressively unwalkable, so you’ll have to drive to most of these places. And as the planet gets hotter, wildfires can make the air smoggy, smoky, and unbearably hot, especially in the summer, so you won’t want to walk anyway. Still, the city boasts a lot of “only in L.A.” benefits, like its 50-plus (!) farmers markets, all of which accept SNAP and EBT.
10. Portland, Oregon
Our take: Most likely to have a veggie valet
For a healthy snack, try: Blossoming Lotus
For a workout, try: Lloyd Athletic Club
Carrots, broccoli, kale, oh my! Veggies are easier to shop for and store in Portland. The year-round farmers market near Portland State University—one of several in the city—offers a “Veggie Valet.” This service lets you drop off bags from the market and pick them up at a more convenient time. Later, you can bike the canyon trails in the Columbia River Gorge or roam the city’s many parks, gardens, and wildlife preserves.
11. Denver, Colorado
Our take: “Hey, should I move here?” world capital
For a healthy snack, try: Just Be Kitchen
For a workout, try: FIIT
There’s a reason why people of a certain age tend to get a glint in their eyes when they say they’re thinking of packing it all up and moving to Denver. The place is a haven for outdoor-loving—or wannabe outdoor-loving—folk, with a wealth of opportunities to hike, kayak, and bike within city limits. It’s just a few hours’ drive to the Rocky Mountains, which has access to even more hiking, fresh powder for skiing, and white water for rafting.
Denver also gets points for accessibility. Though it’s known as the Mile-High City, the city itself is relatively flat with wide sidewalks, which makes it easier for people who use wheelchairs to get around. There’s also clear, easy-to-find information about the city’s accessibility services and ADA compliance on its website.
12. Washington, D.C.
Our take: Most literal interpretation of “our land is your land”
For a healthy snack, try: Shouk
For a workout, try: Elevate Interval Fitness
The nation’s capital is, unsurprisingly, the place for public lands. With 643 parks total, 98% of residents live within a 10-minute walk of one. If you don’t feel like walking, you can rent a bike from Capital Bikeshare, which has docks all over the district. It’s also the “gold standard” in wheelchair accessibility, according to Wheelchair Travel, with plentiful ramps and clear sidewalks. Whether you’re heading to the Cherry Blossom festival, the many (free!) Smithsonian museums, or just traversing across the lawn, D.C. makes it easy for you to get where you need to go.
13. Chicago, Illinois
Our Take: Chica-GOAT of public exercise
For a healthy snack, try: Loving Heart
For a workout, try: CHI50
You might know Chicago for its deep dish pizza. But with 8,000 acres of land, the Windy City is also the largest “municipal park manager” in the country. The city hosts free exercise classes in these parks almost every day of the week, so residents can try anything that appeals (including salsa dancing, abs and core, or cardio conditioning) without spending a dime. There are even classes specifically for seniors and those with special needs, along with aquatic programs including water aerobics and swimming lessons. And you know what they say—it’s a slippery slope from taking the odd free workout class to running the famous Chicago marathon. (OK, they don’t say that. But they could.)
14. New York, New York
Our take: Best dressed speed walkers
For a healthy snack, try: Divya’s Kitchen
For a workout, try: Tone House
Though other cities technically best it on a technicality, New Yorkers win out on walking with sheer enthusiasm. And speed. Aside from complaining (understandably) about rent, it’s no secret that walking is the thing to do in New York City—less than 30% of residents drive to work. While you’re clocking in all those steps, you can also take advantage of the great—and often healthy, if you know where to look—food scene in the Big Apple. For those who cook at home (yes, they do exist in NYC), there are more than 50 farmers markets citywide, all stocked with fresh fruits and veggies from the local tristate area. All markets accept SNAP and EBT, and some even offer curbside pickup or home delivery. For those who don’t want to cook at home, healthy restaurants—from vegan sushi spots to all the bone broth joints one could ever want—beckon on almost every corner.
15. Madison, Wisconsin
Our take: The forest bathing destination of the Midwest
For a healthy snack, try: Blended
For a workout, try: MadPower Hot Fitness
Spending a day outside is easy in Madison, Wisconsin. There, you’ll find around 11 parks per 10,000 residents (the most per capita in the United States!). There’s something for everyone in these green spaces, whether you’re searching for pickleball, lacrosse, kayaking, or even cricket. At some, you can play a round of disc golf, swim a few laps in the community pool, or stroll through the botanical gardens.
16. Seattle, Washington
Our take: Not-so-sleepless in Seattle
For a healthy snack, try: Conscious Eatery
For a workout, try: Rival Fitness
Seattle may just the best city to get some sleep. This has to do with many factors, including the fact that many residents have health insurance (just 4.9% don’t), which increases the likelihood of accessing preventative care and treatment for issues that can disrupt sleep, and relatively low rates of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes, which can negatively impact sleep. The Emerald City also has a high amount of walking and running trails per capita, great fruit and veggie consumption among its residents, and a high quantity of green space. Sounds pretty healthy.
17. San Diego, California
Our take: Most likely to run a fitness Finsta (or several)
For healthy food, try: Grater Greens
For a workout, try: Aquavie Wellness Club
Whether you’re an avid yogi, a beginner kickboxer, or a Crossfit devotee, you’ll find all of that—and a ton more—in San Diego, where fitness studios and independent gyms are found on almost every corner. (You can always go to one of the area’s seven Orangetheory studios—but why not try something more unique, like the Aquavie Wellness Club?) If you’d rather opt for an outside workout, you can do that, too, thanks to the 40,000 acres of parks woven throughout the beachside city including La Jolla Cliffs, a popular surfing and hiking destination. In addition to stunning ocean views, you’ll see some seals and sea lions laying out on the beach, which all but guarantees a li’l hit of serotonin.
18. Portland, Maine
Our take: Most likely to make long walks on the beach personality trait
For healthy food, try: Daily Greens
For a workout, try: Salud Portland
Leave it to Portland, Maine to have one of the most unique fitness offerings on this list. Old Port Historic Workouts leads a 90-minute “workout walking tour” of the city that includes speed walking or jogging to landmarks and monuments along with a sprinkle of strength training movements. Aside from that, you’ll find a plethora of parks, playgrounds, and trails just begging to be explored and frolicked upon, some with urban forests, ice skating ponds, pools, and even cross-country skiing paths. Plus, with 3,500 miles of coastline in the state—that’s longer than California’s coast, btw—it’s easy to find a beaches right in Portland for some long, pensive seaside strolls.
19. Irvine, California
Our take: Best “No Smoking” signs
For a healthy snack, try: Jan’s Health Bar
For a workout, try: Trim
Secondhand smoke isn’t an issue in Irvine, California. Or, at least, it’s less of an issue than it is in a lot of other places. The city has a citywide smoking ordinance that prevents smoking in almost all public spaces. This shows in the city’s low smoking rates—just 5.5% of Irvine adults are smokers, compared to 12.5% nationwide. Irvine also has an 8,000-acre Open Space Preserve where you can hike, mountain bike, ride horses, bird watch, or even take a full moon walk.
20. Salt Lake City, Utah
Our take: Easiest place to go zero-proof
For a healthy snack, try: The Protein Foundry
For a workout, try: Rideologie
Salt Lake City has excellent breweries and plenty of bars for those who want to indulge (all of which serve up very exact pours in accordance with state liquor laws). But it also has one of the lowest rates of excess alcohol consumption in the country—making it a great spot to choose not to drink, a movement many Americans seem to be embracing. Outside the bar scene, there’s so much to do… outside. If it’s winter, you can hit the slopes, tube, or snowshoe at ski resorts like Alta and Snowbird. In warmer months, just drive a few hours to get to national parks like Bryce Canyon and Zion, or stay close to the city with local hikes at Neff’s Canyon and Ensign Peak.
21. Austin, Texas
Our take: Most likely to develop core muscles at the rodeo
For a healthy snack, try: Local Foods
For a workout, try: Athletic Outcomes
If you’ve ever dug into a pile of veggie-filled goodness from the Whole Foods salad bar or wandered its towering aisles of natural, organic treats, you have Austin, Texas to thank—the Southwestern city is the birthplace of Whole Foods. Of course, Whole Foods is no longer limited to just Austin (but it does have five of ’em). If you’d like to keep your organic food shopping local (and weird), the city has a slew of smaller co-ops and about 40 kick-ass farmers markets. After fueling up, take one of the free fitness or nutrition class offered by the city in both Spanish and English, paddle board on Lady Bird Lake, or cruise through miles of biking and running trails.
22. Atlanta, Georgia
Our take: Best free fitness offerings
For a healthy snack, try: Hippie Hibachi
For a workout, try: Bach Fitness
Anyone who’s ever paid for a gym membership or joined a boutique fitness studio knows just how expensive working out can be. Fortunately, in Atlanta, there are so many free offerings, residents can stay fit without forking over any cash. The city offers plenty of free virtual and IRL workout classes to its residents, like aerobics, bootcamps, and a run club. Atlanta also has about 3,000 acres of parks with outdoor basketball courts, multi-purpose fields, swimming pools, and more. If and when you feel ready to join a gym, you’re covered there too—the city has a range for all kinds of workouts and all kinds of budgets, from a YMCA to an Exhale studio.
23. Minneapolis, Minnesota
Our take: Most likely to make biking to work a whole thing
For a healthy snack, try: Advellum Vegetable Eatery
For a workout, try: Surge Cycling
Long, sit-down commutes are for other cities. Minneapolis is one of the most bike-friendly cities in the U.S., with the third highest 5-year average of bike commuting in the U.S. Residents can cycle down 16 miles of on-street bikeways and 98 miles of bike lanes or explore the 101 miles of trails. For those who prefer to bike indoors—that is, in a spin class—you can find more than your fair share of free or affordable workout classes at studios and gyms around the city. Living in Minneapolis also provides residents proximity to the Mayo Clinic, often considered the best hospital in the country. It’s in Rochester, which is about an hour and a half away—and its sports medicine clinic is located directly in Minneapolis.
24. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Our take: Most likely to use farmers market pierogies as workout fuel
For a healthy snack, try: 1:11 Juice Bar
For a workout, try: Shape Training
Downtown Pittsburgh is the place to be if you want to partake in a group fitness class with your neighbors. The city provides free weekly yoga and dance classes in Market Square—titled, appropriately, “Yoga in the Square” and “Dancing in the Square,” respectively—for its residents. The same area also houses numerous gyms and fitness studios, from cycling to the local YMCA, along with four bustling farmers market and pop-up health and wellness fairs. All farmers markets accept SNAP/EBT, and some provide a $2 voucher for fresh fruits and vegetables for every $5 of SNAP purchases.
25. Missoula, Montana
Superlative: Most likely to tell you to “take a hike,” but actually mean it
For a healthy snack, try: Basal Hospitality
For a workout, try: Missoula Gym
Thinking of heading to Missoula? If so, you’ll need to break in your hiking boots. When you get there, you’ll find dozens of scenic trails that are just a quick 15 minutes or less from the city. If you don’t want to venture outside city limits, you can explore the 550 acres of parks, 22 miles of commuter trails, or 4,200 acres of conservation lands. Of course, there’s more than just hiking—activity-friendly Missoula is home to outdoor recreation galore, like disc golf, horseback riding, rafting, birding, and more.
- Moving your body is a meaningful way to stay well: Benefits of Physical Activity (CDC)
- Parks in urban areas reduce stress Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment (Nature, July 2019)
- Lacking insurance negatively impacts health: Access to Health Services (OASH)
- People with high incomes are less likely to experience obesity: The overweight and obesity transition from the wealthy to the poor in low- and middle-income countries: A survey of household data from 103 countries (PLOS Medicine, November 2019)
- Wealthy people less likely to bear the burden of commercial tobacco: People with Low Socioeconomic Status Experience a Health Burden from Commercial Tobacco (CDC)
- Health insurance coverage is higher among people of high socioeconomic status: The convergence of racial and income disparities in health insurance coverage in the United States (International Journal for Equity in Health, 2021)
- Wealthy people are less likely to experience disease and premature death: How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity? (Urban Institute, April 2015)
- Black and Latino families earn about half as much as White families: Wealth Inequality and the Racial Wealth Gap (The Federal Reserve, October 2021)